Basic Electronics

Basic electronics concepts and circuits explained for beginners or students. Circuit diagram and detailed working explanation.

Astable Multivibrator using Transistors

An Astable Multivibrator or a Free Running Multivibrator is the multivibrator which has no stable states. Its output oscillates continuously between its two unstable states without the aid of external triggering. The time period of each states are determined by Resistor Capacitor ( RC ) time constant. Astable Multivibrator using Transistors - Circuit Astable Multivibrator Using Transistors In the above diagram we can find two transistors which is wired as a switch. Please do read the article Transistor as A Switch. When...

Transistor as a Switch

We all know that a transistor has 4 regions of operation, in which Active, Cutoff and Saturation are commonly used. A transistor works in active region when worked as an Amplifier. When a transistor works as a Switch it works in Cutoff and Saturation Regions. In the Cutoff State both Emitter Base Junction and Collector Base junctions are reverse biased. But in saturation region both junctions are forward biased. Switch is a very useful and important application of transistors. In...