Various tutorial in the field of electronics. PIC Microcontrollers, embedded etc..

Intel Core i7 Processor

What is a Microprocessor ?

What is a Microprocessor ? A microprocessor is an integrated circuit (IC) which incorporates core functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU). It is a programmable multipurpose silicon chip, clock driven, register based, accepts binary data as input and provides output after processing it as per the instructions stored in the memory. Block Diagram of a Computer How does a Microprocessor work ? A processor is the brain of a computer which basically consists of Arithmetical and Logical Unit (ALU), Control Unit [...]

ESP8266 - WiFi SoC

ESP8266 – WiFi SoC

WiFi SoC (System on Chip) ESP8266 is the most popular and low cost WiFi SoC with TCP/IP stack and a low power 32 bit microcontroller manufactured by Espressif, a Shanghai based Chinese manufacturer. As you might already know, nowadays IoT (Internet of Things) is an emerging field. This is the one of the most popular and low cost solution for connecting 'Things' to internet via WiFi.   ESP8266 belongs to Espressif System's Smart Connectivity Platform (ESCP) which is a set of high performance, high [...]


EasyEDA – A Cloud based PCB Design Software

Cloud computing is an internet based computing which relies on sharing computer resources. It enables us to use computer resources or processing power as a utility similar to using electricity. So we don't need to make big computer infrastructure in our building, just use the cloud resources whenever there is a need. Nowadays everything become cloud computing, like cloud storage, word processing, business analytics etc. What is the role of cloud computing in electronics ? The question ends here, EasyEDA. [...]

I²C Bus Logo

I²C Communication with PIC Microcontroller – MPLAB XC8

I2C or IIC or I2C stands for Inter-Integrated Circuit. It is a very popular multi-master, multi-slave serial communication interface developed by Philips. I2C uses two bidirectional open drain data lines, Serial Data (SDA) and Serial Clock (SCL) with pull up resistors as shown below. Unlike UART, you can connect and communicate to multiple devices using the same I2C bus. I2C is a master slave protocol. It means that devices connected to I2C bus will be either master or slave. The master is the [...]

Analog to Digital Converter

Using ADC of PIC Microcontroller – MPLAB XC8

In this tutorial we will learn, how to use the ADC module of a PIC Microcontroller using MPLAB XC8 compiler. For demonstration we will use the commonly available PIC 16F877A microcontroller. Every physical quantity found in nature like temperature, humidity, pressure, force is analog. We need to convert these analog quantities to digital to process it using a digital computer or a microcontroller. This is done by using Analog to Digital Converters. An Analog to Digital Converter or ADC is a [...]

PWM - Pulse Width Modulation

Generating PWM with PIC Microcontroller – MPLAB XC8

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is the one of the simple and most commonly used technique to produce analog voltages from digital signals. It has a wide variety of applications such as Digital to Analog Converter (DAC), DC Motor Speed Control, Sine Wave Inverters, Brightness control etc. PWM signals are ON - OFF signals (HIGH or LOW) (hence the name Pulse) whose HIGH or ON duration is changed (hence Width Modulation) in accordance with our requirements. The fraction of time period [...]


Getting Started with DipTrace

DipTrace is a software that allows you to create simple and complex Printed Circuit Boards from schematic diagrams to layouts. It is a user friendly EDA software. We recommend this for electronics hobbyists, as it is a freeware allows us to design single layer and double layer PCBs upto 300 pins. You can purchase its paid version if you need more layers/pins. If you are a beginner to PCB designing, you should be familiar with following terms before going to pcb [...]

EM-18 RFID Reader Module

Interfacing EM-18 RFID reader with Arduino Uno

Arduino Uno is an opensource physical computing platform based on ATmega328 microcontroller and provides a development environment for writing software for the board. It can be used for a variety of projects. EM-18 RFID reader is one of the commonly used RFID reader to read 125KHz tags. It features low cost, low power consumption, small form factor and easy to use. It provides both UART and Wiegand26 output formats. It can be directly interfaced with microcontrollers using UART and with PC using [...]