Electronics

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Inverting Amplifier using Opamp - Circuit Diagram

Inverting Amplifier using Opamp

Inverting amplifier is an amplfier whose amplfied output is negatively proportional to the input. Its gain will be negative. For eg. if we provide sine wave input, its amplified output will be 180° out of phase with input. When the input is voltage is increasing, output voltage will decrease and vice versa. Recommended Reading : Opamp - Operational Amplifier We all know that the open loop gain of an operational amplifier is very high for practical applicaitons. So we will apply [...]

EasyEDA vs DipTrace vs OrCAD

EasyEDA vs DipTrace vs OrCad

Today I am gonna write about my PCB designing journy that happend before 8 year. I started doing hobby circuits before 8 years and now I am doing professional circuits. Phase 1 : Hand Drawn (no Softwares) I started desiging PCB manually without using any softwares. Mostly I used graph papers to design PCB as it was very easy to make measurements and alignments. Several itrations of drawing was required to make even a small circuit. After the design is completed, I [...]

Virtual Ground - Opamp

Virtual Ground – Opamp

What is Virtual Ground ? As the name indicates it is virtual, not real ground. For some purposes we can consider it as equivalent to ground. In opamps the term virtual ground means that the voltage at that particular node is almost equal to ground voltage (0V). It is not physically connected to ground. This concept is very useful in analysis of opamp circuits and it will make a lot of calculations very simple. Virtual Ground - Opamp Lets see how the [...]

ESP8266 - WiFi SoC

ESP8266 – WiFi SoC

WiFi SoC (System on Chip) ESP8266 is the most popular and low cost WiFi SoC with TCP/IP stack and a low power 32 bit microcontroller manufactured by Espressif, a Shanghai based Chinese manufacturer. As you might already know, nowadays IoT (Internet of Things) is an emerging field. This is the one of the most popular and low cost solution for connecting 'Things' to internet via WiFi.   ESP8266 belongs to Espressif System's Smart Connectivity Platform (ESCP) which is a set of high performance, high [...]

LED Chaser using 4017 and 555 Timer - PCB

LED Chaser using 4017 Counter and 555 Timer

Introduction A simple LED chaser hobby circuit can be made using 555 timer and CD4017 counter IC. You can use this circuit for decorative purposes. By modifying the circuit in a proper way, you can even use this to control lights working on AC mains. Components Required CD4017 Counter IC - 1 555 Timer IC - 1 LED - 11 680Ω Resistor - 11 10KΩ Resistor - 1 10KΩ Variable Resistor - 1 10μF Capacitor - 1 0.01μF Capacitor - 1 9V [...]

Op-Amp Block Diagram

Opamp – Operational Amplifier

What is an Opamp ? Opamp is the abbreviation of Operational Amplifier. An operational amplifier is a direct coupled high gain amplifier usually consisting of one or more differential amplifiers followed by a level transistor and an output stage. The output stage is generally push-pull or complementary symmetry push-pull amplifier. Opamps are building blocks of analog circuitry and is also known as differential amplifier as its output depends on difference between input signals. It can also be used to amplify both DC as [...]

Differential Amplifier using Transistors

As the name indicates Differential Amplifier is a dc-coupled amplifier that amplifies the difference between two input signals. It is the building block of analog integrated circuits and operational amplifiers (op-amp). One of the important feature of differential amplifier is that it tends to reject or nullify the part of input signals which is common to both inputs. This provides very good noise immunity in a lot of applications. Let's see the block diagram of a differential amplifier. Vi1 and Vi2 are input [...]

Rain Alarm using 555 Timer - PCB

Rain Alarm using 555 Timer

Here is a simple and interesting hobby circuit that can be made using the popular 555 timer IC. As you might already know, a 555 Timer can be easily wired as Astable, Monostable or Bistable multivibrator. This circuit can be used as rain sensor, water overflow sensor or as a water level sensor. This circuit make use the principle that normal water can conduct some amount of electricity (PURE water is not a good conductor of electricity but water seen [...]