Electronics, embedded, microcontroller, pic, projects, hobby circuits, circuit, blog, transistor, technology

SPI Communication

SPI – Serial Peripheral Interface

SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) is a full duplex synchronous serial communication interface used for short distance communications. It is usually used for communication between different modules in a same device or PCB. SPI devices communicates each other using a master slave architecture with a single master. Multiple slaves are supported through individual slave select lines. SPI Interface SPI is called as a 4-wire bus as it requires four wires for its communication as shown below. In the case of single slave [...]

Intel Core i7 Processor

What is a Microprocessor ?

What is a Microprocessor ? A microprocessor is an integrated circuit (IC) which incorporates core functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU). It is a programmable multipurpose silicon chip, clock driven, register based, accepts binary data as input and provides output after processing it as per the instructions stored in the memory. Block Diagram of a Computer How does a Microprocessor work ? A processor is the brain of a computer which basically consists of Arithmetical and Logical Unit (ALU), Control Unit [...]

Temperature Controlled Fan using Arduino

Temperature Controlled Fan using Arduino

Here we are going to make a temperature controlled DC fan. DHT22 sensor is used to sense the room temperature and then we adjust speed of a DC fan/motor accordingly using PWM (Pulse Width Modulation). Arduino Uno is the heart of this project and a L293D driver IC is used to drive the DC fan/motor. Components Required Arduino Uno L293D Motor Driver IC DHT22 Sensor 16x2 LCD Display DC Fan/motor 9V Battery 10KΩ Potentiometer 220Ω Resistor Breadboard Circuit Diagram Explanation First we can connect L293D [...]

Inverting Amplifier using Opamp - Circuit Diagram

Inverting Amplifier using Opamp

Inverting amplifier is an amplfier whose amplfied output is negatively proportional to the input. Its gain will be negative. For eg. if we provide sine wave input, its amplified output will be 180° out of phase with input. When the input is voltage is increasing, output voltage will decrease and vice versa. Recommended Reading : Opamp - Operational Amplifier We all know that the open loop gain of an operational amplifier is very high for practical applicaitons. So we will apply [...]

EasyEDA vs DipTrace vs OrCAD

EasyEDA vs DipTrace vs OrCad

Today I am gonna write about my PCB designing journy that happend before 8 year. I started doing hobby circuits before 8 years and now I am doing professional circuits. Phase 1 : Hand Drawn (no Softwares) I started desiging PCB manually without using any softwares. Mostly I used graph papers to design PCB as it was very easy to make measurements and alignments. Several itrations of drawing was required to make even a small circuit. After the design is completed, I [...]

Virtual Ground - Opamp

Virtual Ground – Opamp

What is Virtual Ground ? As the name indicates it is virtual, not real ground. For some purposes we can consider it as equivalent to ground. In opamps the term virtual ground means that the voltage at that particular node is almost equal to ground voltage (0V). It is not physically connected to ground. This concept is very useful in analysis of opamp circuits and it will make a lot of calculations very simple. Virtual Ground - Opamp Lets see how the [...]

ESP8266 - WiFi SoC

ESP8266 – WiFi SoC

WiFi SoC (System on Chip) ESP8266 is the most popular and low cost WiFi SoC with TCP/IP stack and a low power 32 bit microcontroller manufactured by Espressif, a Shanghai based Chinese manufacturer. As you might already know, nowadays IoT (Internet of Things) is an emerging field. This is the one of the most popular and low cost solution for connecting 'Things' to internet via WiFi.   ESP8266 belongs to Espressif System's Smart Connectivity Platform (ESCP) which is a set of high performance, high [...]

LED Chaser using 4017 and 555 Timer - PCB

LED Chaser using 4017 Counter and 555 Timer

Introduction A simple LED chaser hobby circuit can be made using 555 timer and CD4017 counter IC. You can use this circuit for decorative purposes. By modifying the circuit in a proper way, you can even use this to control lights working on AC mains. Components Required CD4017 Counter IC - 1 555 Timer IC - 1 LED - 11 680Ω Resistor - 11 10KΩ Resistor - 1 10KΩ Variable Resistor - 1 10μF Capacitor - 1 0.01μF Capacitor - 1 9V [...]