Electronics tutorials including microcontroller, microprocessor, programing and circuits. Intended for beginners, electronics hobbyists, college students, professionals and educational purposes.

PIC16F877A

Using Internal EEPROM of PIC Microcontroller

There are commonly three types of memories in a PIC Microcontroller, Flash Program Memory, Data Memory (RAM) and EEPROM Data Memory. We write Programs in the Flash Program Memory of a microcontroller. Flash memory makes it possible to program a microcontroller many times before installing to device and even after the installation we can change the program. RAM Data Memory is used for storing data temporarily during program execution and it is volatile. That is, this memory is cleared when the [...]

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Servo Motor

Interfacing Servo Motor with PIC Microcontroller

Servo Motor uses error sensing negative feedback to control the precise angular position. Servos are used for precise positioning in robotic arms, legs, RC Aeroplanes, Helicopters etc. Please read the article Servo Motor for more information about its working and construction. Hobby Servo Motors have three wires, two of them (RED and BLACK) are used to given power and the third one is used to give control signals. Servo can be easily be controlled using microcontrollers using Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signals on [...]

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Stepper Motor or Step Motor

Interfacing Stepper Motor with PIC Microcontroller

Introduction A Stepper Motor is a brushless, synchronous DC electric motor, which divides the full rotation into a number of equal steps. It finds great application in field of microcontrollers such as robotics. Please refer the article Stepper Motor or Step Motor for detailed information about working of stepper motor, types and modes of operation. Unipolar Motor is the most popular stepper motor among electronics hobbyist because of its ease of operation and availability. Here I explaining the working of Unipolar and Bipolar Stepper [...]

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Matrix Keypad

Reading Multiple Pressed Keys from Matrix Keypad using PIC Microcontroller

I have already post about Interfacing Matrix Keypad with PIC Microcontroller. I suggest to read that article before reading this. In some applications it may require to scan more than one key at a time. Reading Multiple Pressed Keys from Matrix Keypad is not simple as reading Single key. We want to change the program as well as the circuit of matrix keypad for reading multiple keys. The main problem is unexpected shorts may come to act when we press [...]

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Matrix Keypad

Interfacing Matrix Keypad with PIC Microcontroller

This tutorial explains ‘What is a Matrix Keypad ?’ and ‘How to Interface Matrix Keypad with PIC Microcontroller ?’. Matrix Keypad Matrix Keypad is a very useful and userfriendly when we want to design certain applications like Calculator, Telephone etc. Matrix Keypad is made by arranging push button switches in rows and columns. Just imagine, if you want to interface a 4*4 (16 keys) matrix keypad with a microcontroller.  In the straight forward way, you will need 16 pins of a microcontroller for that, [...]

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dc motor

Interfacing DC Motor with PIC Microcontroller using L293D

This tutorial explains ” How to interface DC Motor with PIC Microcontroller ? “. DC Motor and L293D We can’t drive a DC Motor (depends) directly with a Microcontroller, as DC Motors requires high current and high voltage than a Microcontroller can handle. Microcontrollers usually operates at +5 or +3.3V supply and it I/O pin can provide only up to 25mA current. Commonly used DC Motors requires 12V supply and 300mA current, moreover interfacing DC Motors directly with Microcontrollers may affect [...]

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DS1307 RTC

Interfacing Real Time Clock (RTC) DS1307 with PIC Microcontroller

DS1307 is a low power serial real time clock with full binary coded decimal (BCD) clock/calendar plus 56 bytes of NV SRAM (Non Volatile Static Random Access Memory). Data and Address are transferred serially through a bidirectional I2C bus. The RTC provides year, month, date, hour, minute and second information. The end date of months is automatically adjusted for months fewer than 31 days including leap year compensation up to year 2100. It can operate either in 24-hour format or 12-hour format [...]

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Multiplexing of Seven Segment Displays with PIC Microcontroller

When a Seven Segment Display is interface with PIC Microcontroller it needs minimum 7 pins to display a value. But real time applications like Digital Clock, Calculator, Digital Watch requires 3-6 seven segment displays. Lets assume that we need 6 digit display, ie we need 7 segment * 6 Display = 42 pins. Thus we actually need Microcontroller with 42 output pins. This is waste and not economical to use lot of pins of a Microcontroller just for display. The simplest [...]

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