# Tag - electronics

## Pulse Width Modulation : PWM using Arduino

PWM using Arduino Pulse Width Modulation or PWM is a method of Digital to Analog Conversion. It helps in delivering analog average voltage using digital pulses of variable pulse width. By controlling the on time and off time, we can generate an analog average voltage using the digital pulses. PWM has a wide range of application. It is used in DC motor speed control, Brightness control of LED lamps etc. Here in this simple experiment to understand the PWM working in ARDUINO,...

## Bridge Rectifier

Rectifier A rectifier is a device that converts AC into DC. The power available to us is in the form of AC. But almost all electrical equipments work on DC. So we need a converter   that converts AC into DC. We employ a rectifier circuit for this purpose. Rectifiers are basically classified into Half Wave and Full wave according to the cycles (either Half of a cycle or Full) that are rectified. Among these the bridge rectifier is the most...

## Cell Phone Controlled Land Rover Using Logic Gates

What's Science for a small child ?At that age, no one of us is aware about the vast branches in science ,yet we are very curious to know.There will be lots of  Why's and How's in our mind which makes the elders irritated.By seeing a toy car,we always get wondered. Without knowing any robotics or electronics inside we just want to make our own toy car with clay and blocks.So its not wrong to say that every child has scientist...

## Implementing XOR and XNOR Logic Functions using Diode Bridge and Transistor

Using DTL (Diode Transistor Logic) we can implement XOR and XNOR Logic Functions with a minimum number of Discrete Components.   When we need to design Logic Circuits operating for higher than standard supply voltages, such as 30 and 24V, we can implement it by using regulators with standard logic family and interfacing it through Level Shifters. Alternatively we can implement Logic Gates from discrete electronic components and can be operated directly from the supply voltages if the Logic Circuits are not complex. We know that...

## Samsung’s New Transistor Structure using Graphene

Samsung Electronics has Developed a new Transistor Structure using Graphene to increase the possibilities of transistor in future, reported online by the journal Science, 17th May.  The core R&D incubator for Samsung Electronics, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology has developed new Graphene Transistor Device structure to hold the Moore's law true for a decade. This research is regarded as a significant step in the development of  transistors, that can overcome the limitations of conventional Silicon Transistors. We all know that Semiconductor Electronics Devices consists...

## Optical Transistors Out of Silicon : Significant step towards Optical Computing

We all know that electrons are good at processing information, but they are incapable of carrying information over long distances. On the other hand, Photons can carry information all around the planet but their processing is hectic. So we use electrons for processing and photons for long distance data transmission. Thus we need significant amount of power to convert optical information to electronic and vice versa. Hence there is no wonder in the fact  that  researchers pay significant interest in developing...

## New Organic Transistor by X-ray Probe : Do Well in Hot Water

Recently, the scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) along with an international research team delineated the possibility of a new class of sterilizable, flexible, organic electronic materials  for medical applications by proving the stability of a novel and rugged thin-film membrane at high temperatures. The work conducted using a low-energy X-ray beam line, at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in Brookhaven, N.Y., was supported by an international team led by researchers from the University of Tokyo and...

## Inside a Crystal Oscillator…….!!

A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit which uses inverse piezoelectric effect, ie when electric field is applied across certain materials it produces mechanical deformation. Thus it uses mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric materiel to create an electric signal with very precise frequency. They have high stability, quality factor, small size and low cost and this makes them superior over other resonators like LC circuit, ceramic resonator, turning forks etc. This image show a 8MHz crystal oscillator commonly used in microcontrollers and microprocessors. Although...