Brain-Computer InterfaceIrene Mathew
Imagine a world where everything is virtual. Say, youtouch and feel some digital world. Or say, if you close youreyes and see Google webpage in front of your eyes. You seeit but others can`t see it, since it is virtual. Now surf whatever you want from Google in front of your eyesvirtually, but it appears as if it is real. Or say, your parents are in London and you want them in front of your eyes now and you are able to bring them virtually. Still many more…All these can be achieved when electronics take control over an animal or human brain. There exist a lot of differences between the biological and the Electronics and computer world. This paper is about to integrate them. It’s just like fixing a computer in a human brain .All these can be done on brain, to be specific ‘neuron’ of brain without harming the brain or destroying the neurons of brain. Just like how different electronic component communicate using electric signals, in a similar way the neural network in brain communicate using some signals called “electrochemical signals”. These signals are similar to electronic signals but they are controlled or regulated by chemicals present across neurons. We cannot hack these signals directly by connecting some wires to the neuron. What we can do is we can just take a response of the signals using the already available instruments (e.g. EEG (Electroencephalography), SQUIDS (Super conducting quantum interface devices), these might seem quite expensive. But however there are many other alternative ways to overcome these problems.
Using these we can study and understand how the brain waves behave in a neural network for
an event, say if a person sees red color, similarly we can study for all light frequencies of light, and by this we can stimulate different colors artificially in front of your eyes. We can code in a computer for these stimulators. This information can be converted back to electronic signals using our electronic circuits. When these signals are passed through a conductor which is kept across a neural network (using a special arrangement of wires that is placed on your head) it induces the electric signals in neural network due to “electromagnetic induction” .Here the magnetic field signals are coupling with the neural network and it is changing with time which induces signals in brain. This induces an emf or a potential difference across any conductor in its vicinity in medical terms it is called “transcranial magnetic stimulation”. In this case, the conductor is nothing but neuron itself. Proper care must be taken so that the induced potential does not exceed the resting potential of the brain.Before starting to induce the signal input, we need to confine ourselves into certain limits i.e. whatever we implement on brain should not destroy the neural network of the brain.