Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) in PIC Microcontroller

Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) in PIC Microcontroller

ADC module of PIC microcontroller have usually 5 input for 28 pin devices and 8 inputs for 40 pin devices. The conversion of analog signal to PIC ADC module results in corresponding 10 bit digital number. PIC ADC module has software selectable high and low voltage reference input to some combination of VDD, VSS, RA2 and RA3.

In the following example project we will convert analog input to channel 1 to 10 bit digital number with low voltage reference (Vref-) 0v and high voltage reference (Vref+) 5V. The output will be displayed using 10 LEDs. You can change the Vref- and Vref+ by configuring the ADCON1 register.


0v  =  0000000000

5v  =  1111111111

Resolution = (Vref+ – Vref-)/(1024-1)   (as it is 10 bit ADC)

= 5/1023

= 4.887 mV

Thus it means that for a change in 4.887mV, the binary output changes by 1.

Circuit Diagram

Note: VDD and VSS of the pic microcontroller is not shown in the circuit diagram. VDD should be connected to +5V and VSS to GND.

MikroC Program

unsigned int adc;
void main()
 ADCON1 = 0x80;
 TRISA = 0xFF; // PORTA is input
 TRISC = 0x3F; // Pins RC7, RC6 are outputs
 TRISB = 0;    // PORTB is output
 adc = ADC_Read(1); // Get 10-bit results of AD conversion
 //of channel 1
 PORTB = adc;      // Send lower 8 bits to PORTB
 PORTC = adc >> 2; // Send 2 most significant                  //bits to RC7, RC6
 } while(1);

You can vary the analog input value by varying the resistance of the potentiometer in the circuit.

This tutorial covers only the basic ADC operation. If you want to know more about it, please refer the datasheet of PIC 16F877A. If you have any doubt regarding this please do comment.

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Comments (78)

  • Blinkcruz have a program of it in flowcode?..

    September 19, 2012 at 7:40 am
  • Ligo George

    Sorry …………..
    This link may help you……

    September 19, 2012 at 5:14 pm
  • Mahmud Ibrahim

    Very good tutorial.keep posting.

    November 13, 2012 at 1:57 am
  • Aimanbanifadel

    hello ligo ,  the thermometer project show on the lcd temprature : and the value was 414 dgree

    November 15, 2012 at 10:32 pm
  • Aimanbanifadel

    then what is the problem as you think

    November 15, 2012 at 10:33 pm
  • Ligo George

    I don’t understand your question…..Please elaborate ……..

    November 16, 2012 at 10:11 am
  • Aimanbanifadel

    hi, i built the project very good but the result of the lcd is not correct the thermometer does not show the room temperature but show the 414 degree then i need to know where is the problem is it in the hex file or in the sensor ………note (i connect vref+ on5v……..and vref- on 0v) thanks for your care

    November 17, 2012 at 11:26 am
  • Ligo George

    You needn’t connect +Vref & -Vref………..

    Check the output voltage of the LM 35 temperature sensor..

    November 17, 2012 at 5:02 pm
  • noel george paqueo

    can someome share the code for this project? thanks a lot

    November 26, 2012 at 5:00 pm
  • Ligo George

    Code is shared in the article itself…..

    November 26, 2012 at 5:13 pm
  • lusk

    dont u need to set the ansel byte??

    February 27, 2013 at 12:04 am
  • Ligo George

    Nop, There is no register called ANSEL in PIC 16F877A……… it is in PIC 16F877 …

    February 27, 2013 at 7:11 am
  • jaycee

    hi can you teach me a code for a IR motor speed control. using a program which can read a increment or decrement of speed and will vary the speed of the motor. The increment and decrement is based on the transmitter part of the IR transmitter. thanks a lot 🙂

    March 9, 2013 at 7:11 pm
  • jaycee

    and also there is a LED that will indicate the degree or level how fast the speed of the motor. for example. when you turn on the device, there is only one LED that is on, then when the increment button is pressed, the second LED will turn on. When the decrement button is pressed, the second LED will turn off and will return to only one LED is on.

    March 9, 2013 at 7:16 pm
  • Ligo George

    This comment is not related to the above article…..

    Please ask these doubts in our new forum:

    March 10, 2013 at 12:30 pm
  • sandeep bhardwaj

    Hii…In every tutorial different frequency of crystal has been used. but my board contains only 20Mhz crystal….but how will it be posssible to use different frequency crystal at the same for the two applications which are going to be perfermed simultaneously.

    April 15, 2013 at 10:23 pm
  • Ligo George

    I have used 8MHZ crystal for most of the projects and tutorials…
    You can use 20MHZ, simply by changing the oscillator frequency in MikroC settings… before compiling…

    April 16, 2013 at 8:28 am
  • romli

    how to get 8 bit adc?

    April 23, 2013 at 4:52 pm
  • Ligo George

    Neglect the least significant 2 bits…

    April 23, 2013 at 7:11 pm
  • syera

    hi my company have given me a task to create analog to digital converter with max input voltage 12v and min input voltage 5v. but the output must be in 2 bit. meaning that if input 12 v,the output will be 11 and so on. can u help me?

    May 31, 2013 at 1:05 pm
  • Ligo George

    You may use above adc with 5 and 0 voltage references…. you can scale down the voltage upto 12V with in 0-5V range using potential divider…
    If you don’t wish to use microcontroller.. you can use R-2R ladder adc …

    May 31, 2013 at 2:31 pm
  • susmitha

    can you please post the corresponding digital outut for the given analog voltages for the above program?

    August 14, 2013 at 6:22 pm
  • Ligo George

    I already described it in the article…
    0V – 0000000000
    4.887mV – 0000000001
    9.774mV – 0000000010
    4999.401mV – 1111111111

    August 15, 2013 at 7:43 am
  • albhee

    TRISA = 0XFF; this code set all pin of port A as input. what have to do to set a single pin of port A as input? which pins can be used to ADC input?

    August 22, 2013 at 1:17 am
  • Ligo George

    ADC inputs are determined by the ADCON1 register… read its datasheet there is a table under ADCON1 register.

    August 22, 2013 at 6:50 pm
  • albhee

    sorry. i mean, what if i want to use some pin of port A as output? how can i set some pin as input and some as output at a time of Port A?

    August 22, 2013 at 11:39 pm
  • Ligo George

    Ya sure.. configure the required pins as digital using ADCON1 register and configure those digital pins as output using TRIS register

    August 23, 2013 at 4:10 pm
  • Spider

    Hi, I have gone through your volt and currnet measurement. I have voltage range from 0-50 and current range from 0-1A. As per you calculation presented I get very poor resolution. Can you please explain how to get better resolution through the range using 10 Bit ADC

    September 3, 2013 at 11:54 pm
  • Ligo George

    The total resolution will be equal to 50/1023 (+Vref- -Vref)/(2^10)
    so to increase the resolution either you should reduce the voltage range or.. increase the output bits..

    September 8, 2013 at 8:03 am
  • Bitesh Tiwari

    why the following instruction is written in the above code?

    CMCON = 0x07;

    October 17, 2013 at 5:00 pm
  • Ligo George

    It is used to disable internal comparators… i will work without that statement as comparators will be disable by default..

    October 18, 2013 at 4:48 pm

    i want to convert analog voltage to digital voltage by increasing the input voltage by potentiometer, what should i do ?

    December 12, 2013 at 11:50 am
  • Ligo George

    connect the fixed points of VDD and VSS and variable point to adc input.

    December 12, 2013 at 4:25 pm

    I believe there is error in the program RC7 and RC6, are no connected.

    December 19, 2013 at 7:26 pm

    Hi albhee, 0xff (HEX) = 11111111 (BIN) = 75643210 (Ports number), if you want only one 00000001 = port 0 input also if want anhother 00001000 = port 3 input..

    December 19, 2013 at 7:50 pm


    December 19, 2013 at 7:51 pm
  • Yasantha Niroshan

    i already write to same cods for microwc. but cant configure,coming errores ?? plz answer me………

    March 30, 2014 at 7:47 pm
  • komal

    can anyone please help me generate 2 Pwm pulses to trigger 2 power igbts in a boost converter,each inverting the other i.e,when pwm1 is on then pwm2 off or vice versa and then convert them to digital?please mail me ; [email protected]

    April 1, 2014 at 2:37 pm
  • bahrey58

    Hi Mr.Ligo

    i have ultrasonic sensor GH-300RT and I don not know how to fix it with 16f877a or 16f84a by mikroc to detect any objects in front the sensor (moving object and stopping objects) can you please advice me

    or contact me on [email protected]

    Thank you

    August 18, 2014 at 12:08 pm
  • Ligo George

    Hello, I can’t find any details about GH-300RT.

    August 18, 2014 at 12:22 pm
  • bahrey58

    sorry i means GH-311RT

    August 18, 2014 at 12:24 pm
  • bahrey58

    sorry i mean GH-311RT ultrasonic sensor

    August 18, 2014 at 5:00 pm
  • Ligo George

    Sorry we haven’t any tutorials for GH-311RT.

    August 19, 2014 at 7:32 pm
  • joynal


    I am using PIC16F877A .

    My problem is ANSEL is not support PIC16F877A , but support ADCON .
    i don’t know how to configure

    code is here:

    ANSELC = 0; // Configure PORTC as digital I/O
    ANSELB = 0; // Configure PORTB as digital I/O
    ANSELD = 0; // Configure PORTD as digital I/O

    August 20, 2014 at 3:18 pm
  • Ligo George

    Please read the ADC section of PIC 16F877A microcontroller .

    August 20, 2014 at 5:03 pm
  • manoj

    how set 4bit 8bit ad conversion

    February 5, 2015 at 6:23 pm
  • Ligo George

    What do you mean ?

    February 9, 2015 at 8:26 pm
  • Harikrishnan

    I have two analog inputs i want to convert the analog input to digital output paralelly is there any possibility to do that so. if it is poosible how can it be done

    February 20, 2015 at 5:01 pm
  • Ligo George

    You can’t convert both analog inputs parallelly using PIC ADC.
    But you can convert it sequentially …. one after the other.

    February 23, 2015 at 4:27 pm
  • Ummi Gowda

    what is the meaning of adcon=0x80 please explain me in detail

    April 14, 2015 at 12:03 pm
  • Ligo George

    Check the datasheet of 16F877A.. you can find ADCON1 register there….
    It sets all PORTA pins as Analog Inputs.

    April 27, 2015 at 10:00 pm
  • reindy

    Hy, i have some probem to make program in pic16f877. how to read the analog (voltage) sensor. i must measure the RST phase. please help. thank

    June 3, 2015 at 3:09 pm
  • Ligo George

    That is what described in the above article.

    June 6, 2015 at 3:56 pm

    hi mr.ligo how to make if/else statement to detect condition from adc data?

    June 23, 2015 at 4:21 pm


    June 23, 2015 at 4:26 pm
  • Ligo George

    You can simply compare the adc values as like normal comparison statements, there is no difference.

    July 1, 2015 at 7:15 pm
  • Ligo George

    In MikroC, you have to use IntToStr() to convert integer to string.

    October 3, 2015 at 3:17 pm
  • Omais Ahmed

    hi Ligo
    how to read 16bit value from adc?

    November 30, 2015 at 11:55 am
  • Seshu Gnaneswar

    sir i just started working with pic micro controller.How can i compare the output of ADC of pic with some other peripheral

    December 10, 2015 at 10:59 pm
  • Ligo George

    PIC 16F877A ADC is 10 bit only. If you need 16 bits, try another microcontroller or external ADC.

    December 19, 2015 at 3:32 pm
  • Ligo George

    like this :
    a = ADC_Read(0)

    if(a > 10)
    do some thing

    December 19, 2015 at 3:52 pm
  • Ezhil Arasan

    Hi Bro,what is the difference between MIKRO C and Hitech C?Which is best for reduced file size ?

    February 7, 2016 at 10:10 am
  • Ezhil Arasan

    In ADC program for MIKRO C ADC_ON bit of ADCON0 register is not set .So ADC does not ON.Also ADCON1 register is not declared.The function adc=ADC_read(1) is also not defined.Am I right BRO…waiting for ur answer.. 🙂

    February 7, 2016 at 10:17 am
  • Ligo George

    Hi-Tech C is a deprecated compiler, no longer supported by Microchip. Use MPLAB XC8 instead.
    MikroC is a compiler by Mikroelectronika.

    I think it is better to go with MPLAB XC8 for professional projects.

    February 14, 2016 at 7:04 pm
  • Ligo George

    Those will be automatically done by those functions. That is the advantage of mikroc.

    February 14, 2016 at 7:05 pm
  • Matrix

    Thank you Mr. Ligo. I have a doubt. Suppose if i am having two analog voltages and if the difference between the voltages is more (than say, 15mV), then the output should be high otherwise low.
    Is it possible to do so in ADC (or in inbuilt analog Comparator of PIC18F4550) ??
    Can you please tell me how to do it ?

    February 24, 2016 at 8:10 pm
  • Ligo George

    Yes, you can compare voltages using ADC. no problems…. Better to use comparator module.. .it will reduce the processing.

    February 27, 2016 at 8:04 pm
  • Ali 'Imran Akhyar

    ANSEL = 0;
    ANSELH = 0;

    hello sir.. how to convert this library to microc compiler using pic16f877a?? thnk you sir..

    May 28, 2016 at 6:51 pm
  • Ligo George

    Where do you get that program ? There is no ANSEL in my program. PIC 16F877A has no ANSEL registers.

    June 2, 2016 at 6:45 pm
  • Shreya Sood

    Sir could you please elaborate how to do this?

    September 18, 2016 at 1:20 am
  • Ligo George

    a1 = ADC_Read(0);
    a2 = ADC_Read(1);
    a3 = ADC_Read(2);

    September 22, 2016 at 7:28 pm
  • Vikaar Hamaayun

    Hello . I am reading analogue value from adc module but when i display it on lcd the value comes different

    actual_value = ADC_Read(1);
    LCD_Out(2, 1, “+V = “);
    FloatToStr(actual_value, vartxt);
    LCD_Out(2, 6, vartxt);

    can you please help me regarding it

    Waqar Hamayun

    October 31, 2016 at 7:01 pm
  • Vikaar Hamaayun

    AAAaaaaa i have solved the problem . Thank you thou

    October 31, 2016 at 7:10 pm
  • Vikaar Hamaayun

    know i am getting a error in the follow statement
    error = setpoint – actual_value;
    when i compile it . it does that fine but when running in ic it creates a problem and all the variables are in float

    October 31, 2016 at 7:27 pm
  • Ligo George

    First thing ADC value is not a float.. it is a 10bit number…. ranges from 0 to 1023.

    November 27, 2016 at 2:29 pm
  • dgod

    want to on the led sequentially

    pls help

    September 5, 2017 at 9:34 pm
  • yogesh


    with the above code PORTB pins all are high without giving any input voltage to AN1…i m not understanding why…?

    October 2, 2017 at 11:56 am
  • Sanathoi Sagolsem

    Hi Ligo, great work. But, I doubt the TRISC should be 0x3C not 0x3F as you have used RC0 and RC1 as output pin.

    December 7, 2017 at 7:08 am

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